India and Russia have signed a contract on the supply of S-400 air defense missile systems during Russian President Vladimir Putin’s visit.
The S-400 Triumf (NATO reporting name: SA-21 Growler) is a Russian long-and medium-range air defense missile system. It is designed to destroy air attack and reconnaissance means (including stealth aircraft) and any other aerial targets amid intensive counter-fire and jamming.
Why S-400 is a game changer for India
- We have a couple of surface-to-air missiles but none of them are cogent solutions to the problems that the military has.
- We do not have a long range SAM. S400 is more than a missile but a complete air defence system for aircrafts, missiles etc.
- It would give a upper hand for our defence forces on Pakistan Army . Our forces will be able to track every bits and movement of Pakistan Army & Airfields. And S400 wil help our forces to track and shoot the possible incoming air & infantry moments along the western border.
- India has clearly struggled with short-range SAM’s and has gone for joint venture for medium range SAM’s. Clearly if we start a new programme from scratch for long range SAM, it will take even more time for it to be operational. Also China alredy got the s-400 missile system from from Russia .
Development and entry into service
The work on the conceptual design of the point air defense missile system initially designated as the S-300PM3 was launched by the Almaz research and production association (currently the Almaz research and production association named after Academician Alexander Raspletin, Moscow) in the mid-1980s under the supervision of Chief Designer Alexander Lemansky. This work was intensified in the late 1990s and on February 12, 1999 the system was demonstrated for the first time at the Kapustin Yar practice range (the Astrakhan Region) to then-Defense Minister Igor Sergeyev. The trials of the most advanced air defense missile system were carried out in the 2000s.
On April 28, 2007, the S-400 went into service and the first battalion of the newest surface-to-air missile systems assumed combat duty on August 6 that year in the town of Elektrostal (the Moscow Region). Six weeks later, On September 27, 2007, the Triumf’s developer, Alexander Lemansky who saw the launch of his missile system into serial production, died at the Kapustin Yar practice range. The system’s first live-fire exercises were successfully carried out at the Kapustin Yar practice range in 2011.
S-400 system and its integral parts
The S-400 Triumf comprises the following:
- a combat control post;
- a three-coordinate jam-resistant phased array radar to detect aerial targets;
- six-eight air defense missile complexes (with up to 12 transporter-launchers, and also a multifunctional four-coordinate illumination and detection radar);
- a technical support system;
- missile transporting vehicles;
- a training simulator.
The S-400 system can also additionally include an all-altitude radar (detector) and movable towers for an antenna post. All the S-400’s means are mounted on the wheeled all-terrain chassis (produced by the Minsk Wheeled Tractor Factory and the Bryansk Automobile Enterprise) and can be transported by rail, water and air transport.
The S-400 can selectively operate with the use of no less than 5 missile types of various takeoff weights and launch ranges to create a layered air defense zone.
The S-400 is also capable of exercising control of other air defense missile systems (the Tor-M1, the Pantsyr-S1), providing highly effective air defense even amid a mass air attack with the use of electronic warfare means
- target detection range – up to 600 km;
- aerodynamic target kill range – from 3 to 250 km;
- tactical ballistic missile destruction range – from 5 to 60 km;
- target destruction altitude – from 2 to 27 km;
- engageable target velocity – up to 17,300 km/h;
- the number of targets engaged at a time – up to 36 (up to six with one air defense missile complex);
- the number of simultaneously guided missiles – 72;
- the time of the system’s deployment from its march position – 5-10 min, the time of making the system combat ready from the deployed position – 3 min;
- the operational service life of ground-based systems – no less than 20 years, air defense missiles – no less than 15 years;
Russian Aerospace Force Deputy Commander-in-Chief Viktor Gumyonny said on April 8, 2017 that missiles capable of “destroying targets in outer space, at long distances and high speeds” had started arriving for S-400 systems.
S-400 Triumph features
“The system can engage all types of aerial targets including aircraft, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), and ballistic and cruise missiles within the range of 400km, at an altitude of up to 30km.”
The S-400 is two-times more effective than previous Russian air defence systems and can be deployed within five minutes. It can also be integrated into the existing and future air defence units of the Air Force, Army, and the Navy.
S-400 Triumph missiles
The S-400 air defence missile system uses four new missile types in addition to the missiles of the S-300PMU system. The first missile inducted for the system was the 48N6DM (48N6E3). It is an improved variant of the 48N6M with powerful propulsion system. The missile can destroy airborne targets within the range of 250km.
The Triumf Air Defense System is the most advanced of its type in the world. The S-400 uses different ranges of missiles to cover its entire performance envelope. These are the extremely long range (ex:40N6), long range (Ex: 48N6) and medium range (Ex: 9M96) missiles.The S-400 Triumf, a top-tier anti-aircraft weapon system produced in Russia, has no parallels across the globe in terms of combat capabilities. In contrast US-built Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD), has a shorter range and is incapable of hitting targets beyond the horizon. In addition, the S-400 system is purely an anti-ballistic missile system designed to shoot down ballistic missiles.
The S-400 is capable of hitting targets at a height of up to 300 kilometers (186 miles). Its second distinctive feature is fire-and-forget capability. Its missiles are fitted with a homing device which can lock onto a target and terminate it. Unlike the US system, the S-400 does not need to track the target.
- The 40N6 very long range missile is capable of destroying airborne targets at ranges up to 400km (250mi). Active radar homing head. (expected in 2012) To engage targets out of sight from the ground (for homing missile can) is designed to find the target. System S -400 can hit targets at a height of 185km.
- The 48N6DM long range missile is capable of destroying airborne targets at ranges up to 250km (160mi). Semi-active radar homing head
- The 48H6E3/48H6E2 -The 250/200km, target speed 4,800 metres per second (17,000km/h; 11,000mph; Mach14)/2,800 metres per second (10,000km/h; 6,300mph; Mach8.2), rocket speed 2,000 metres per second (7,200km/h; 4,500mph; Mach5.9).
48N6E2 missile Russian surface-to-air missile. Improved version of the 48N6 for the S-300PMU-1 48N6E and S-400 systems, capable of shooting down tactical ballistic missiles at incoming speeds of 4.8 km/s or hypersonic targets flying at 3.0 km/s at 150 km altitude.
AKA: S-400. Payload: 180 kg (390 lb). Gross mass: 1,700 kg (3,700 lb). Height: 6.98 m (22.91 ft). Diameter: 0.52 m (1.69 ft). Span: 1.04 m (3.40 ft). Apogee: 30 km (18 mi).
Maximum range: 400 km (240 mi). Boost Propulsion: Solid rocket. Minimum range:3.00 km (1.80 mi). Floor: 10 m (32 ft).
Russian surface-to-air missile. Version of the S-300 system for export using the advanced 48N6E2 missile, capable of shooting down tactical ballistic missiles.
AKA: 48N6E2; Favorit. Payload: 180 kg (390 lb). Gross mass: 1,700 kg (3,700 lb). Height: 6.98 m (22.91 ft). Diameter: 0.52 m (1.69 ft). Span: 1.04 m (3.40 ft). Apogee: 27 km (16 mi).
The 40N6 missile of the S-400 has a claimed range of 400km and uses active radar homing to intercept air targets at great distances. It can be launched against AWACS, J-STARS, EA-6B support jammers and other high-value targets.
9M96 Missile (Fakel)
- The 9M96E2 extended range missile is capable of destroying airborne targets at ranges up to 120km (75mi), flying altitude 5m to 30km,. It has the highest hit probability against fast, maneuverable targets such as fighter aircraft. Weight 420kg. Active radar homing head. The probability for single missile to destroy the target without taking into account the operational reliability is: (piloted stealth / UAV) of is actively maneuvering = 0.9 / 0.8.
- The 9M96E medium range missile (40km), flying altitude 20km, weight 333kg. Active radar homing head.
- The 9M96 (not for exporting) medium range missile. Range more 120km, a high probability of target destruction 1 rocket (0.9 for the aircraft and UAV maneuvering -0.8). Can maneuver at a height of 35 km with an overload of more than 20g, which greatly increases the efficiency of destruction of ballistic missiles medium and short range.
- The ABM capabilities are near the maximum allowed under the (now void) Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty.
- The new anti-ballistic missiles 77N6-N and 77N6-N1 to enter service in 2014 supposedly add inert/kinetic anti-ballistic capability to the system.The same missiles will also be used by the S-500, which has a clearly stated anti-ICBM role.
77N6-N and 77N6-N1 hypersonic missile to be used by S-500
The S-400 Triumph also launches 9M96E and 9M96E2 medium range ground-to-air missiles. Designed for direct impact, the missiles can strike fast moving targets such as fighter aircraft with a high hit probability. The maximum range of the 9M96 missile is 120km.
|9M96E and 9M96E2 missiles|
|Target engagement envelope, km:
container with four missiles
|Average velocity, m/s||750||1,000|
|First shot hit probability: