S-400 missile defence system : Game Changer For India

India and Russia have signed a contract on the supply of S-400 air defense missile systems during Russian President Vladimir Putin’s visit.

The S-400 Triumf (NATO reporting name: SA-21 Growler) is a Russian long-and medium-range air defense missile system. It is designed to destroy air attack and reconnaissance means (including stealth aircraft) and any other aerial targets amid intensive counter-fire and jamming.

Why S-400 is a game changer for India

movement of Pakistan Army & Airfields. And S400 wil help our forces to track and shoot the possible incoming air & infantry moments along the western border.
  1. We have a couple of surface-to-air missiles but none of them are cogent solutions to the problems that the military has.
  2. We do not have a long range SAM. S400 is more than a missile but a complete air defence system for aircrafts, missiles etc.
  3. It would give a upper hand for our defence forces on Pakistan Army . Our forces will be able to track every bits and movement of Pakistan Army & Airfields. And S400 wil help our forces to track and shoot the possible incoming air & infantry moments along the western border.
  4. India has clearly struggled with short-range SAM’s and has gone for joint venture for medium range SAM’s. Clearly if we start a new programme from scratch for long range SAM, it will take even more time for it to be operational. Also China alredy got the s-400 missile system from from Russia .

Development and entry into service

The work on the conceptual design of the point air defense missile system initially designated as the S-300PM3 was launched by the Almaz research and production association (currently the Almaz research and production association named after Academician Alexander Raspletin, Moscow) in the mid-1980s under the supervision of Chief Designer Alexander Lemansky. This work was intensified in the late 1990s and on February 12, 1999 the system was demonstrated for the first time at the Kapustin Yar practice range (the Astrakhan Region) to then-Defense Minister Igor Sergeyev. The trials of the most advanced air defense missile system were carried out in the 2000s.

On April 28, 2007, the S-400 went into service and the first battalion of the newest surface-to-air missile systems assumed combat duty on August 6 that year in the town of Elektrostal (the Moscow Region). Six weeks later, On September 27, 2007, the Triumf’s developer, Alexander Lemansky who saw the launch of his missile system into serial production, died at the Kapustin Yar practice range. The system’s first live-fire exercises were successfully carried out at the Kapustin Yar practice range in 2011.

The S-400 is based on the S-300PMU2 air defense missile complex. It differs from its predecessors by its extended combat range and the capability of using new surface-to-air missile systems. It is capable of detecting and destroying low-observable (stealth) and fast-moving aerial targets.

S-400 system and its integral parts

The S-400 Triumf comprises the following:

  • a combat control post;
  • a three-coordinate jam-resistant phased array radar to detect aerial targets;
  • six-eight air defense missile complexes (with up to 12 transporter-launchers, and also a multifunctional four-coordinate illumination and detection radar);
  • a technical support system;
  • missile transporting vehicles;
  • a training simulator.

The S-400 system can also additionally include an all-altitude radar (detector) and movable towers for an antenna post. All the S-400’s means are mounted on the wheeled all-terrain chassis (produced by the Minsk Wheeled Tractor Factory and the Bryansk Automobile Enterprise) and can be transported by rail, water and air transport.

The S-400 can selectively operate with the use of no less than 5 missile types of various takeoff weights and launch ranges to create a layered air defense zone.

The S-400 is also capable of exercising control of other air defense missile systems (the Tor-M1, the Pantsyr-S1), providing highly effective air defense even amid a mass air attack with the use of electronic warfare means

Technical characteristics

  • target detection range – up to 600 km;
  • aerodynamic target kill range – from 3 to 250 km;
  • tactical ballistic missile destruction range – from 5 to 60 km;
  • target destruction altitude – from 2 to 27 km;
  • engageable target velocity – up to 17,300 km/h;
  • the number of targets engaged at a time – up to 36 (up to six with one air defense missile complex);
  • the number of simultaneously guided missiles – 72;
  • the time of the system’s deployment from its march position – 5-10 min, the time of making the system combat ready from the deployed position – 3 min;
  • the operational service life of ground-based systems – no less than 20 years, air defense missiles – no less than 15 years;

Russian Aerospace Force Deputy Commander-in-Chief Viktor Gumyonny said on April 8, 2017 that missiles capable of “destroying targets in outer space, at long distances and high speeds” had started arriving for S-400 systems.

S-400 Triumph features

russias-s-400-system-7
S-400 coverage in Syria

“The system can engage all types of aerial targets including aircraft, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), and ballistic and cruise missiles within the range of 400km, at an altitude of up to 30km.”

The S-400 Triumph air defence system integrates a multifunction radar, autonomous detection and targeting systems, anti-aircraft missile systems, launchers, and command and control centre. It is capable of firing three types of missiles to create a layered defence.The system can engage all types of aerial targets including aircraft, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), and ballistic and cruise missiles within the range of 400km, at an altitude of up to 30km. The system can simultaneously engage 36 targets.

The S-400 is two-times more effective than previous Russian air defence systems and can be deployed within five minutes. It can also be integrated into the existing and future air defence units of the Air Force, Army, and the Navy.

S-400 Triumph missiles

The S-400 air defence missile system uses four new missile types in addition to the missiles of the S-300PMU system. The first missile inducted for the system was the 48N6DM (48N6E3). It is an improved variant of the 48N6M with powerful propulsion system. The missile can destroy airborne targets within the range of 250km.

S-400 missiles

The Triumf Air Defense System is the most advanced of its type in the world. The S-400 uses different ranges of missiles to cover its entire performance envelope. These are the extremely long range (ex:40N6), long range (Ex: 48N6) and medium range (Ex: 9M96) missiles.The S-400 Triumf, a top-tier anti-aircraft weapon system produced in Russia, has no parallels across the globe in terms of combat capabilities. In contrast US-built Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD), has a shorter range and is incapable of hitting targets beyond the horizon. In addition, the S-400 system is purely an anti-ballistic missile system designed to shoot down ballistic missiles.

The S-400 is capable of hitting targets at a height of up to 300 kilometers (186 miles). Its second distinctive feature is fire-and-forget capability. Its missiles are fitted with a homing device which can lock onto a target and terminate it. Unlike the US system, the S-400 does not need to track the target.

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40N6 Missile

screenshot-ic.pics.livejournal.com-2018.08.25-14-26-31
  • The 40N6 very long range missile is capable of destroying airborne targets at ranges up to 400km (250mi). Active radar homing head. (expected in 2012) To engage targets out of sight from the ground (for homing missile can) is designed to find the target. System S -400 can hit targets at a height of 185km.
  • The 48N6DM long range missile is capable of destroying airborne targets at ranges up to 250km (160mi). Semi-active radar homing head
  • The 48H6E3/48H6E2 -The 250/200km, target speed 4,800 metres per second (17,000km/h; 11,000mph; Mach14)/2,800 metres per second (10,000km/h; 6,300mph; Mach8.2), rocket speed 2,000 metres per second (7,200km/h; 4,500mph; Mach5.9).

48N6E2

48N6E2 missile Russian surface-to-air missile. Improved version of the 48N6 for the S-300PMU-1 48N6E and S-400 systems, capable of shooting down tactical ballistic missiles at incoming speeds of 4.8 km/s or hypersonic targets flying at 3.0 km/s at 150 km altitude.

AKA: S-400. Payload: 180 kg (390 lb). Gross mass: 1,700 kg (3,700 lb). Height: 6.98 m (22.91 ft). Diameter: 0.52 m (1.69 ft). Span: 1.04 m (3.40 ft). Apogee: 30 km (18 mi).

Maximum range: 400 km (240 mi). Boost Propulsion: Solid rocket. Minimum range:3.00 km (1.80 mi). Floor: 10 m (32 ft).

Russian surface-to-air missile. Version of the S-300 system for export using the advanced 48N6E2 missile, capable of shooting down tactical ballistic missiles.

AKA: 48N6E2; Favorit. Payload: 180 kg (390 lb). Gross mass: 1,700 kg (3,700 lb). Height: 6.98 m (22.91 ft). Diameter: 0.52 m (1.69 ft). Span: 1.04 m (3.40 ft). Apogee: 27 km (16 mi).   

The 40N6 missile of the S-400 has a claimed range of 400km and uses active radar homing to intercept air targets at great distances. It can be launched against AWACS, J-STARS, EA-6B support jammers and other high-value targets.

9M96 Missile (Fakel)

screenshot-wordpress.com-2018.08.25-14-54-18
9M96 Missile (Fakel)
  • The 9M96E2 extended range missile is capable of destroying airborne targets at ranges up to 120km (75mi), flying altitude 5m to 30km,. It has the highest hit probability against fast, maneuverable targets such as fighter aircraft. Weight 420kg. Active radar homing head. The probability for single missile to destroy the target without taking into account the operational reliability is: (piloted stealth / UAV) of is actively maneuvering = 0.9 / 0.8.
  • The 9M96E medium range missile (40km), flying altitude 20km, weight 333kg. Active radar homing head.
  • The 9M96 (not for exporting) medium range missile. Range more 120km, a high probability of target destruction 1 rocket (0.9 for the aircraft and UAV maneuvering -0.8). Can maneuver at a height of 35 km with an overload of more than 20g, which greatly increases the efficiency of destruction of ballistic missiles medium and short range.
  • The ABM capabilities are near the maximum allowed under the (now void) Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty.
  • The new anti-ballistic missiles 77N6-N and 77N6-N1 to enter service in 2014 supposedly add inert/kinetic anti-ballistic capability to the system.The same missiles will also be used by the S-500, which has a clearly stated anti-ICBM role.

77N6-N and 77N6-N1 hypersonic missile to be used by S-500

77N6-N and 77N6-N1 hypersonic missile

The S-400 Triumph also launches 9M96E and 9M96E2 medium range ground-to-air missiles. Designed for direct impact, the missiles can strike fast moving targets such as fighter aircraft with a high hit probability. The maximum range of the 9M96 missile is 120km.

9M96E and 9M96E2 missiles
9M96E 9M96E2
Target engagement envelope, km:
Range:
minimum
maximum
1
40
1
120
Altitude:
minimum
maximum
0.005
20
0.005
30
Weight, kg:
missile
warhead
container with four missiles
333
24
2,300
420
24
2,700
Average velocity, m/s 750 1,000
First shot hit probability:
piloted target
unpiloted target
target═s payload
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.9
0.8
0.7
Air Power Australia Website
S-400 5P85SE demonstrator TEL with quad 9M96E launch tubes

Command and control

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The 55K6E command and control system of the S-400 Triumph is based on the Ural-532301 mobile command post vehicle. The command post is equipped with LCD consoles to process the air space surveillance data of the individual batteries. It controls and monitors long-range surveillance radar, tracks airborne threats, prioritises the threats, and coordinates other batteries.

The system is also capable of exchanging data with other defence systems such as SA-12, SA-23, and S-300.

The 55K6E is employed to control all components in the group of batteries, and can collect and present status information from all components. It can also control the operating modes of the 91N6E Big Bird acquisition and battle management radar, including its IFF/SSR functions. A comprehensive C3 /datalink package is installed, and an Elbrus-90 mikro central processor is used to execute the data processing and system management code. Sharing hardware with the S-300PMU2 54K6E 2 CP, the 55K6E uses 18 inch LCD panels for all crew stations.

Five common consoles are installed, with unique software driven presentation for the five person crew of the CP, the latter comprising:

  • 1 x Air Defence Unit Commander
  • 1 x Air Situation Management Officer
  • 2 x Fire Control Officers
  • 1 x Engineering Officer

While Lemanskiy et al did not detail the 55K6E any further, the high level of commonality suggests that more recent Almaz-Antey disclosures on the also apply to the 5

 

The 55K6E command and control system of the S-400 Triumph is based on the Ural-532301 mobile command post vehicle. The command post is equipped with LCD consoles to process the air space surveillance data of the individual batteries. It controls and monitors long-range surveillance radar, tracks airborne threats, prioritises the threats, and coordinates other batteries.

The system is also capable of exchanging data with other defence systems such as SA-12, SA-23, and S-300.

The 55K6E is employed to control all components in the group of batteries, and can collect and present status information from all components. It can also control the operating modes of the 91N6E Big Bird acquisition and battle management radar, including its IFF/SSR functions. A comprehensive C3 /datalink package is installed, and an Elbrus-90 mikro central processor is used to execute the data processing and system management code. Sharing hardware with the S-300PMU2 54K6E 2 CP, the 55K6E uses 18 inch LCD panels for all crew stations.

Five common consoles are installed, with unique software driven presentation for the five person crew of the CP, the latter comprising:

  • 1 x Air Defence Unit Commander
  • 1 x Air Situation Management Officer
  • 2 x Fire Control Officers
  • 1 x Engineering Officer

While Lemanskiy et al did not detail the 55K6E any further, the high level of commonality suggests that more recent Almaz-Antey disclosures on the 54k6E2 also apply to the 55K6E2.

Radars

“The S-400 is two-times more effective than previous Russian air defence systems and can be deployed within five minutes.”

The fire control and target tracking radar of the S-400 is the 92N6E (NATO Codename: Gravestone). The radar is based on the MZKT-7930 8×8 vehicle. The 96L6 Cheese Board 3D surveillance and tracking radar is optionally carried by the same vehicle when the S-400 battery is deployed autonomously.

92N6E (NATO Codename: Gravestone) Multimode Engagement Radar

The 92N6E departs from the specialised engagement and fire control functionality of earlier radars in the Flap Lid family, exploiting abundant computing power no differently than Western AESAs. It is intended to provide autonomous manual and automatic sector searchs, target acquisition and tracking, in adverse weather, Electronic Counter Measures, chaff and low altitude clutter environments. The radar is equipped with an IFF capability.

The 92N6E Grave Stone will automatically prioritise targets, compute Launch Acceptable Regions for missile launches, launch missiles, capture missiles, and provide midcourse guidance commands to missiles while tracking the target and missile. Missile guidance modes include pure command link, semi-active homing, and Track via Missile (TVM) / Seeker Aided Ground Guidance (SAGG), where missile semi-active seeker outputs are downlinked to the Grave Stone to support the computation of missile uplink steering commands.

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The radar can track 100 targets in Track While Scan mode, and perform precision tracking of six targets concurrently for missile engagements. data exchanges between the 92N6E Grave Stone and 30K6E battle management system are fully automatic.

The 92N6E Grave Stone data processing subsystem is designed around the Elbrus-90 mikro SPARC multiprocessor system, like the S-300PMU2 30N6E2 Tomb Stone variant. Computing power is exploited to support a diverse range of modes and waveforms. These including:

  • Sniffing waveforms at varying power levels to establish the presence of interfering emitters at a given angle and frequency;
  • Adaptive beam control reflecting immediate operational conditions;
  • Variable PRFs and scan rates for missile and target tracking;
  • Defeat of high power active noise jammers by the use of “radical measures” in the design.

New Electronic Counter Counter Measures technology was employed in the design of the 92N6E Grave Stone, but was neither described nor named.

Lemanskiy et al described the 48N6E3 missile in some detail, but did not include any disclosures beyond what is already public knowledge.

The authors did state that increased radar power-aperture product performance in both the 92N6E Grave Stone and 91N6E Big Bird increases the capability of the S-400 Triumf to engage low signature or stealth targets, but their cryptic claim of 50 percent of the engagement range remains difficult to interpret.

What is evident is that the fully digital S-400 Triumf displays most  if not all of the typical capability gains seen in the latest generation of fully digital systems of Western design.

Radars

“The S-400 is two-times more effective than previous Russian air defence systems and can be deployed within five minutes.”

The fire control and target tracking radar of the S-400 is the 92N6E (NATO Codename: Gravestone). The radar is based on the MZKT-7930 8×8 vehicle. The 96L6 Cheese Board 3D surveillance and tracking radar is optionally carried by the same vehicle when the S-400 battery is deployed autonomously.

92N6E (NATO Codename: Gravestone) Multimode Engagement Radar

The 92N6E departs from the specialised engagement and fire control functionality of earlier radars in the Flap Lid family, exploiting abundant computing power no differently than Western AESAs. It is intended to provide autonomous manual and automatic sector searchs, target acquisition and tracking, in adverse weather, Electronic Counter Measures, chaff and low altitude clutter environments. The radar is equipped with an IFF capability.

The 92N6E Grave Stone will automatically prioritise targets, compute Launch Acceptable Regions for missile launches, launch missiles, capture missiles, and provide midcourse guidance commands to missiles while tracking the target and missile. Missile guidance modes include pure command link, semi-active homing, and Track via Missile (TVM) / Seeker Aided Ground Guidance (SAGG), where missile semi-active seeker outputs are downlinked to the Grave Stone to support the computation of missile uplink steering commands.

The radar can track 100 targets in Track While Scan mode, and perform precision tracking of six targets concurrently for missile engagements. data exchanges between the 92N6E Grave Stone and 30K6E battle management system are fully automatic.

The 92N6E Grave Stone data processing subsystem is designed around the Elbrus-90 mikro SPARC multiprocessor system, like the S-300PMU2 30N6E2 Tomb Stone variant. Computing power is exploited to support a diverse range of modes and waveforms. These including:

  • Sniffing waveforms at varying power levels to establish the presence of interfering emitters at a given angle and frequency;
  • Adaptive beam control reflecting immediate operational conditions;
  • Variable PRFs and scan rates for missile and target tracking;
  • Defeat of high power active noise jammers by the use of “radical measures” in the design.

New Electronic Counter Counter Measures technology was employed in the design of the 92N6E Grave Stone, but was neither described nor named.

Lemanskiy et al described the 48N6E3 missile in some detail, but did not include any disclosures beyond what is already public knowledge.

The authors did state that increased radar power-aperture product performance in both the 92N6E Grave Stone and 91N6E Big Bird increases the capability of the S-400 Triumf to engage low signature or stealth targets, but their cryptic claim of 50 percent of the engagement range remains difficult to interpret.

What is evident is that the fully digital S-400 Triumf displays most  if not all of the typical capability gains seen in the latest generation of fully digital systems of Western design.

96L6 Cheese Board 3D surveillance and tracking radar

 

The 96L6  was developed by KB Lira and is built by LEMZ. It was developed to replace the S-band 36D6 Tin Shield medium and high altitude acquisition radar, and the S-band 76N6 Clam Shell low altitude acquisition radar, with a design which is fully mobile and can redeploy as quickly as a ‘shoot and scoot’ missile battery. The 96L6 can be operating 5 minutes after coming to a stop.

The 96L6 is the standard battery acquisition radar in the S-400 / SA-21 system, and is available as a retrofit for the S-300PM/PMU/PMU1 and S-300PMU2 Favorit / SA-20 Gargoyle as a substitute for the legacy acquisition radars. The radar interfaces to the S-300PMU2 via a radiofrequency datalink or optical fibre cable, and interfaces to older missile batteries via a conventional cable. Interfaces are available for the 30N6E Tomb Stone, the 83M6 battery command post, and Integrated Air Defence System command posts including the Baikal-1E, Senezh-M1E, Osnova-1E and Pole-E. Links to the latter include radiofrequency datalinks or cables.

The radar is a frequency hopping design intended to provide high jam resistance and high clutter rejection. Up to five operator consoles are provided. The planar array antenna employs mechanical beamsteering in azimuth and electronic beamsteering in elevation. Several operating modes are available:

Full azimuth search involves rotating the aperture through 360° and performing vertical sweeps electronically. Medium to low altitude targets can be acquired by constraining the mainlobe elevation angle between -3° and +1.5°, with a 12 second sweep period, or -1.5° and +20°, with a 6 second sweep period. Target velocity is limited to a range of 30 m/s to 1200 m/s. Sector search typically limits sweeps to a 120° sector, with a high sector search between 0° and 60° elevation requiring 8 seconds, or a low sector search between 3° and +1.5° requiring 5.5 seconds. In these modes target velocities are limited to between 50 m/s and 2800 m/s. A dedicated low altitude search mode is also provided, with a 360 sweep performed in 6 seconds, for elevations between -3° and +1.5°.

Two basic configurations of the design are available. The first is the best known, the self propelled TM966E configuration, is carried on the MZKT-7930 chassis, itself derived from the MAZ-543 series first used with the S-300PS. This variant mounts the antenna head on a turntable and carries the equipment cabin, as well as an SEP-2L power generator. The second configuration is semimobile, and uses a pair of trailers, one mounting the antenna head and the SES-75M power supply, the other the equipment cabin, these being connected by up to 100 metres of cable. Accessory options include the 98E6U generator, tow tractors, and either the 24 metre 40V6M or 40 metre 40V6MD semi-mobile mast systems. The latter are carried by semi-trailer and typically towed by a MAZ-537 or other tractor.

a4de315bcceb753125731d4b0dde9378
Main tactical and technical characteristics (LEMZ Data)
Radiated frequencies waveband “C”
Automatic frequency control availability +
Diapason of detected targets slant ranges
Radar coverage:
А) In a mode of all-altitude detection:
in azimuth
in elevation
(there is a possibility to adjust the lower limit of elevation coverage down to minus 3°)
in Doppler speed
data renewal rate:
in lower zone from 0 to 1.5°
in upper zone from 1.5 to 20°  B) In the mode of sector scan:
In the sector of coverage:
in elevation
in azimuth
in doppler speed
sector scan time
Outside the decelaration sector:
in elevation
lower sector scan time
Full scan cycle  В) In the mode of low-altitude detection 
in azimuth
in elevation
in doppler speed
scan rate
5-300 km  360°
from 0 to 20°  from ±30 to ±1200 m/s  6 s
12 s  from 0 to 60°
up to 120°
from ±50 to ±2800 m/s
up to 8 s  from -3 to1.5°
5,5 s
13,5 s  360°
0 – 1,5°
from ±30 to ±1200 m/s
6 s
Tracking of targets is provided at elevation angles up to 60°
Quantity of tracked targets up to 100
Time of track initiation and outputting of target indication (TI):
for aerodynamic target:
at elevation angles below 1.5°
at elevation angles above 1.5°
12 s
21 s
Quantity of false TI during 30 min of operation at most 3-5
Readiness time:
for manufacturing version on one transportation vehicle:
from march
from deployed state
from on-duty state  for manufacturing version on two transportation vehicle:
from march
from deployed state
from on-duty state
5 min
at most 3 min
at most 40 s  30 min
at most 3 min
at most 40 s
Time of installation of antenna on a tower 2 hr
Continuous operation without limit
The radar provides serviceability
under the following climatic conditions:
at temperature
at dust contents
at wind speed
stability against turnover at wind speed
under solar radiation, icing
at altitude above sea level
±50 °С
up to 2.5 g/m3
up to 30 m/s
up to 50 m/s
+
up to 3000 m
The radar crew 3 people

The 91N6E Big Bird acquisition and battle management radar of the S-400 is based on the 8×8 trailer. The radar can detect and track aircraft, rotorcraft, cruise missiles, guided missiles, drones and ballistic rockets within the distance of 600km. It can simultaneously track up to 300 targets.

91N6E Big Bird acquisition and battle management radar

 

The new 91N6E is a derivative of the 64N6E Big Bird series. It is readily identified against the 64N6E by the use of the new build MZKT-7930 tractor. It retains the general configuration of its predecessors. Russian planning is to replace the MZKT tractor with a new  (Almaz-Antey).

NIIIP 5N64S/64N6E/E1/E2 / 91N6E Big Bird

The 64N6E Big Bird is the key to much of the improved engagement capability, and ballistic missile intercept capability in the later S-300P variants. This system operates in the 2 GHz band and is a phased array with a 30% larger aperture than the US Navy SPY-1 Aegis radar, even accounting for its slightly larger wavelength it amounts to a mobile land based Aegis class package. It has no direct equivalent in the West.

Like other components of the S-300PM system, the 64N6E has a number of unique and lateral design features. The radar antenna is mounted on a cabin, in turn mounted on a turntable permitting 360 degree rotation. Unlike Western phased arrays in this class, the 64N6 uses a reflective phased array with a front face horn feed, the horn placed at the end of the long boom which protects the waveguides to the transmitters and receivers in the cabin. The beam steering electronics are embedded inside the antenna array, which has around 2700 phase elements on either face. This Janus faced arrangement permits the Big Bird to concurrently search two 90 degree sectors, in opposite directions, using mechanical rotation to position the antenna and electronic beam steering in azimuth and elevation. This design technique permits incremental growth in output power as the only components of the system which have to handle high microwave power levels are the waveguide and feed horn.

 

The 64N6E is a frequency hopper, and incorporates additional auxiliary antenna/receiver channels for suppression of sidelobe jammers – NIIP claim the ability to measure accurate bearing to jamming sources. The back end processing is Moving Target Indicator (MTI), and like the Aegis the system software can partition the instantaneous sector being covered into smaller zones for specific searches. To enhance MTI performance the system can make use of stored clutter returns from multiple preceding sweeps. Detection ranges for small fighter targets are of the order of 140 to 150 nautical miles for early variants. Per 12 second sweep 200 targets can be detected, and either six or twelve can be individually tracked for engagements.

While the Big Bird provides an excellent acquisition capability against aerial and ballistic missile targets, the 5V55 missile was inadequate. The S-300PM/PMU1 introduced the 48N6 which has much better kinematics – cited range against aerial targets is 81 nautical miles, ballistic missile targets 21.5 nautical miles, with a minimum engagement range of 1.6 to 2.7 nautical miles. Low altitude engagement capabilities were improved – down to 20 – 30 ft AGL. The missile speed peaks at 2,100 metres/sec or cca Mach 6. The missiles can be fired at 3 second intervals, and Russian sources claim a single shot kill probability of 80% to 93% for aerial targets, 40% to 85% for cruise missiles and 50% to 77% for TBMs.

s-400-battery-composition-diagram
composition of an S-400 battery(2008)
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